Global warming and greenhouse effect background

      What’s included
      Greenhouse effect background for the activities
      Earth and the Sun
      What makes a gas a greenhouse gas?
      Structure and properties of the atmosphere
      Greenhouse effect mechanism
      What’s next?

  I. Heat capacity and fate of earth’s energy imbalance

      A. Sunshine, air, and water
      B. “Greenhouse” effect energy imbalance
      C. Warming energy in the oceans
      D. Warming energy in the atmosphere
      E. Passive radiative cooling

  II. Light energy: absorption, emission, and planetary temperature

      A. Sunlight and surfaces
      B. Is all light created equal?
      C. Does the effect of light depend on distance from its source?
      D. Energy from sunlight; energy conservation
      E. Planetary temperatures, energy balance, and albedo
      Appendix A

  III. Density and behavior of ice-water mixtures

      A. Melting ice and density
      B. Oceans, ice, and climate
      C. Seasonal change: another climate science connection

  IV. Temperature, water volume, and sea level

  V. Half lives: counting backwards

      Introduction to rate
      A. Rate of change counting analogy
      B. Half-life and radioactive decay
      C. First-order reactions

  VI. Energy transfer, phase change, and temperature

      A. Solid and liquid water
      B. Liquid and gaseous water


VII. Atmospheric carbon dioxide amount and source(s)

      A. Mass of atmospheric CO2
      B. Radiocarbon dating
      C. Fossil fuels and atmospheric 14C
      D. Atmospheric CO2 from burning fossil fuels: further evidence
      Appendix A: Mass of atmosphere

  VIII. Earth’s internal energy and atmospheric argon

      Nuclear energy
      A. Potassium-40 radioactive decay
      B. Energy and argon from below
      Appendix A: Nuclear reaction energies
      Appendix B: Moles of atmospheric gases

  IX. Aqueous carbon dioxide solutions: equilibria and rates

  X. Carbon dioxide’s ocean chemistry

      Oceans contain …
      A. Reaction(s) of seawater-dissolved CO2 with Ca2+
      B. Reaction(s) of dissolved CO2 with CaCO3


XI. Direction of change and entropy

      A. Probability model for direction of change
      B. Countable systems and reality
      C. Entropy
      D. Revisiting probability and countable systems
      E. Entropy and energy transfer
      F. Energy, temperature and entropy relationship


XII. Reaction energies and entropies

      Further generalization of entropy analyses
      A. Reaction energies and entropies
      B. Temperature and direction of change
      C. Entropy and equilibrium
      D. Carbon cycles


XIII. Osmosis

      A. Introduction to osmosis
      B. Biological cells, cell membranes, and osmosis
      C. Reverse osmosis


XIV. Freezing point of a solution

      A. Solid-liquid phase change


Solubility patterns

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